Ernst-Friedrich Germar

 (1786 - 1853)
German entomologist, paleontologist and mineralogist, Professor of Mineralogy and Director of the Mineralogical Museum of the University of Halle.
It belongs to the prominent entomologists and paleontologists of the XIX century. Among other interests, engaged in the study of insects from the ranks of Heteroptera, Homoptera, and Coleoptera (mainly Curculionidae and Elateridae). Author of many genera and species of insects, including 75 new species of cicadas, mostly from the Neotropical region.
                                          Germaraphis Heie, 1967; Germaria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830;
                                   Germaria Laporte, 1832; Germaria Jeanne, 1972;
                                 Germariella Champion, 1911; Germarina Mesnil, 1963;
                                      Germariochaeta Villeneuve, 1937; Germariopsis Townsend, 1915;
                                Germaropyge Snajdr, 1957; Paragermaria Townsend, 1909;
                                 Pseudogermaria Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891.

GERMAR Ernst-Fridrich – (03.11.1786 Glahau about Yaviklau (Saxony) – Halle 07.08.1853) – mineralogist, geologist, entomologist.

With twelve years under the guidance of impeccable Schaubah, a close relative, was a liberal arts education in high school in Moningen. After graduating from high-school studios from 1804 until 1807 a student of the Mining Academy (Bergakademie) in Freiburg, where he was an enthusiastic student of Werners, with a special predilection for the three-year study involved mineralogy and geognosy (as at the end of XVII - beginning of XIX century was called geology). Attended the natural and legal lectures at the University of Leipzig, where he moved in order to gain the necessary knowledge and where he came alive again youthful enthusiasm for entomology, which he gave up, studying in Freiburg, and he continued zoological studio. It was here that he began the first zoological research, particularly on native beetles Donacia Fabricius.

In Leipzig, he founded the famous pavilion with a collection of insects, bought last Gubner the inspector, who was often thought of Fabricius in his writings. Given their research interests, while in Leipzig Germar maintained very close contact with Kunze and Kaden, the first he had known in high school at the Gymnasium of Thomas, and the second was one of his contemporaries at the academy.

Frequent visits to Halle reduced Germar in 1808 with a distinguished botanist Kurt Sprengel (C. Sprengel), with the assistance of which he moved there permanently and lived for years 1814-1853. Here he worked on his thesis "Dissertatio sistens bombycum spesies, secundum oris partium diversitatem in nova genera distributas", which he defended in 1810 and received a doctorate in philosophy than an academic career began.

In April 1811 E.-F. Germar traveled to Dalmatia, which lasted six months. 15 were the result of his published letters Sprengel containing information on entomology, ornithology and mineralogy. In early 1817 these letters as entomological, ornithological and mineralogical work was designed and published the results in the form of travel. The very same journey was partly on foot, and of the way he rode mail coach. Dear, he visited the famous entomologist, Megerle von Mühlfeld and custodian of the court Museum of Natural History in Vienna.

In 1812 E.-F. Germar defended his second doctorate – habilitation as assistant professor, and became director of the Mineralogical Cabinet (Museum) in Halle. In charge of them for 40 years and has achieved the expansion mineralogical-fossil collection.

In 1813, his academic career was interrupted by the closure of the university. It is, however, allowed him to spend more time on research work, which was divided between the mineralogy and entomology. In 1814, he handled the results of a scientific journey to Dalmatia, which poured out its first research and significant work "Reise durch Österreich und Tyrol nach Dalmatien und ins Gebirge von Ragusa" (The trip to Austria and Tirol Dalmatia and Ragusa in the mountains). It was written in two volumes, with nine tables and two cards. Thanks to the many unusual notes of entomology, this work has been recognized experts on the subject because there was very little scientific publications.

In 1815, he was married Wilhelmine Keferstein (1755-1816), daughter of Captain Hall. However, the children they had. So he made affinity with the leading specialist in geography, Germany, gofrat Christian Kefershtain in Halle and legal advisor, an outstanding expert butterflies Adolf Kefershtain in Erfurt. At Wilhelmina had two brothers Christian and Adolph, who, under the influence and guidance E.-F. Germar loved science and later became well-known zoologists, lepidopterist. After the restoration of the university academic teaching, in 1817 he was appointed extraordinary (extraordinary), and in 1824 - full-time professor of mineralogy, where for a long teaching lectures on mineralogy and geology, and in the first years of teaching and entomology. Later read paleontology. Of all the subjects, conducted in parallel workshops and tours. In 1819 E.-F. Germar issued for university very valuable textbook on mineralogy "Lehrbuch der gesamten Mineralogie", which in 1837 experienced a second edition, and in 1830 was continued in "Grundriz der Krystallkunde". In the field of mineralogy and geognosy writings of Ernst Friedrich had progressive scientific value. Especially important was his work on the origin of plants, especially carnivorous. However, the most important and valuable were his scientific achievements in entomology, to which he devoted himself with passion. Collection of insects known as Gubners collection, which he began collecting when he was still in Leipzig, he continuously multiply and raised it to the level of well-known private collections in Germany and in Europe. She served him a wealth of material for the new descriptions and critical revision of some (or many) of families and species of insects, which he reported in numerous articles and notes.

In the years 1834-1835 E.-F. Germar was rector of the University, and received an honorary degree of doctor of medicine, and for scientific achievement – In 1844, the magistrate of Halle, received the title of the highest (High) advisor. Prior to the appointment of Hermann Burmeister a tenured professor in 1842, E.-F. Germar lectured on entomology at the Zoological Institute. He began to specialize in paleoentomology, particularly interested in bugs. Had a simple-minded character and cheerful disposition, which in society brought him widespread attention ...

Research interests: mineralogy, geology, entomology, palaeoentomology. His descriptions of the members of the order Hemiptera of amber, unfortunately, have not been published. The most important and scientifically sound are considered his entomological papers published in various articles and letters to the Gallic Scientific Society (1810-1811 gg.) Of beetles (Coleoptera) and Heteroptera (Hemiptera).

Scientific papers: Reise durch Österreich, Tyrol nach Dalmatien, vorzüglich in naturhistorischer Hinsicht (Leipzig, 1812); Bemerkungen über einige Gattungen der Cicadarien (Magazin der Entomologie. 1821); Lehrbuch der gesamten Mineralogie (Halle, 1837); Grundriss der Krystallkunde (Halle , 1830); Die Versteinerungen der Steinkohlenformation von Wettin und Löbejün (Halle, 1844-52); Merkwürdige Pflanzen – abdrücke der Steinsclenformation (Nova act. Ac. Leol.-Car., 1831, together with Raulfutsom) Monographie der Die Versteinerungen der Steinkohlenformation von Wettin und Löbejün (1844-53).

Honorary member, and later a corresponding member of the Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, since 1819 Member of the German Academy of natural history Leopoldina, as well as national and international societies of scientists in Paris, Moscow, Philadelphia, in 1822 co-founder of the Society of German Natural Scientists and physicians from 1834 – Honorary doctor, and in 1844 – the supreme adviser medical school. Was a city councilor, member of the board in Pfännerschaft, captain of the urban society shooters, and since 1827 – a master of the Masonic lodge, which he held for 26 years, until his death. Died in July 8, 1853.

Evidence of respect and a significant scientific contribution Germar serve his patronymics, which have been used by scientists of the world in the names of animals since 1830, that is, during his life, in particular: Germaria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830; Germaria Laporte, 1832; Pseudogermaria Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 ; Paragermaria Townsend, 1909; Germariella Champion, 1911; Germariopsis Townsend, 1915; Germariochaeta Villeneuve, 1937; Germaropyge Snajdr, 1957; Germarina Mesnil, 1963; Germaraphis Heie, 1967; Germaria Jeanne, 1972.

References: Revue iconographique des Tettigonides (Signoret, 1853-1855. Ann. So. Ent. France); Zur Kenntniss der Cicadellinen-Gattung (Taschenberg, 1884); Neues zur Gattung Homalodisca (Ins. Hom. Cicad.) (Schröder, 1957 . Senk. Biol.); Aus der Korrespondenz Dejean – Germar, ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Entomologie (Dieckmann L. Beitrage zur Entomologie. Berlin, 1986. № 36 (1); Damselflies insects (Homoptera) from the collection E.-F. Germar in the collections of the Zoological Museum of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Shydlovskyy I., Holovachov A., 2005).


I. Shydlovskyy